|Completed cohort fertility, women born 1974 (children per woman)||The average number of children born alive to women born in the same year (i.e., a birth cohort) during their reproductive lives. Unlike the TFR, which is a hypothetical period indicator, completed fertility represents a measure of actual family size and is known only for women who have completed their childbearing. In this datasheet we show completed fertility of women born in 1974 (who reached age 40 in 2014, the last year for which we have collected fertility data). As only a very small fraction of births take place after that age (4% in the EU in 2014), it is possible to estimate with great accuracy the completed fertility rate for these women, using the most recent available data for 2014 as an estimate of their childbearing after age 40. The data are mostly based on the Human Fertility Database and the Human Fertility Collection. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Intergenerationally equitable normal pension age (IENPA) (years)||The retirement age that ensures that the balance of pension contributions and receipts is the same for each generation, and that pension systems are flexible enough to adapt to changes. It is based on three criteria: (1) members of each cohort receive as much in pension payouts as they pay into the pension plan; (2) the generosity of the pension system, measured as the ratio of average pension receipt to the incomes of people who pay into the pension system is the same for all cohorts; and (3) the pension tax is the same for all cohorts, as elaborated in Sanderson and Scherbov 2015a, and Sanderson and Scherbov 2015b. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Life expectancy at age 65 (years)||The average number of years a person age 65 in 2014 would live if current mortality trends were to continue. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Life expectancy at birth (years)||The average number of years a newborn, born in 2014, would live if current mortality trends were to continue. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Mean age at first birth (years)||The mean age of women at the birth of their first child, computed as the mean age (in years) from age-specific fertility rates of first birth order in a given year. The indicator for 2014 is mostly based on own computations from Eurostat (2016) data. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Number of deaths (thousands)||Total number of deaths during a calendar year. In most countries data refer to 2014. The main source is Eurostat (2016). For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Number of live births (thousands)||Total number of live births during a calendar year. In most countries data refer to 2014. The main source is Eurostat (2016). For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Old-age dependency ratio (OADR) 65+/20-64 (%)||Relates the number of elderly people (usually defined as those aged 65 and above) to the number of people of working age (usually defined as people aged 20-64). The old-age dependency ratio is often considered as a measure of aging and is used for rough estimates of labor force participation, provision and receipt of net transfers, health care costs, pension entitlements etc. It is expected to rise sharply in most countries over the next 40 years. Since the old-age dependency ratio is solely based on chronological age, it has been shown that alternative measures should be included in the study of population aging (Sanderson and Scherbov 2005, 2007, 2010, 2013). For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Population median age (years)||The age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups, with half of the people being younger than this age and half older. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Population projections||Estimates of future population size and its composition based on the assumptions about future trends in fertility, mortality and migration. Projections in this data sheet are computed using the cohort-component method and are based on two migration scenarios, i.e. with and without migration (zero migration scenario). More detailed information is available here.|
|Population size (millions)||Total population of a given country or region as of 1st January 2015. For most countries this count represents the legal resident population in the country, including foreign citizens with a residence permit. The data are mostly based on Eurostat (2016) and, when unavailable, on national statistical offices. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Proportion of live births to foreign-born mothers, 2014 (%)||Share of live births in 2014 to women born abroad and residing in the country in 2014, in %. It is computed as a ratio of live births registered in the country to resident foreign-born women in 2014, and the total number of live births in the country in 2014. The indicator is mostly based on Eurostat (2016) data on live births by age and country of birth of mother. For certain countries we used data collected for women with foreign citizenship (or nationality) instead of foreign born women, as the latter were not available. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Proportion of population 25-39 born abroad, 2015 (%)||Share of population at age 25-39 (usually age group with the highest share of foreign-born population) born abroad and resident in the country as of 1st January 2015 among all population aged 25-39, in %. The indicator is based mostly on own computations from Eurostat (2016) and UNSD (2016) data on population by age and country of birth. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Prospective old-age dependency ratio (POADR) (%)||Based on a flexible threshold of who is considered as being old. It assumes that people do not become old on their 65th birthday regardless of time, place of residence, their health and other characteristics. Instead, the threshold of being old depends on characteristics of people. In this data sheet we consider people old, when their average remaining life expectancy is 15 years or less. (Sanderson and Scherbov 2005, 2007, 2010, 2013). For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Relative population change, 2015 to 2050 (%)||The projected population growth or decline between 2015 and 2050, related to the actual population size in 2015. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Total fertility rate (TFR)||The average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime, if age-specific fertility rates of a given year remained constant during her reproductive years. It is computed as the sum of fertility rates by age across all childbearing ages, 15 to 50. For 2014 the TFRs are mostly based on own computations from Eurostat (2016) data on live births by age of mother and population by age and sex. For country-specific information see data sources.|
|Tempo and parity adjusted total fertility||Fertility indicator that takes into account the influence of the shifting age at childbearing on the period TFR. This indicator estimates the TFR that would be reached in a given year if the age pattern of childbearing remained the same as in the previous year. Because the age at childbearing has been continually increasing in all parts of Europe in the last decades, some births that would otherwise have taken place in any given year were shifted into the future. As a result, the TFR fell well below the completed cohort fertility, i.e. below the number of children women have over their entire life course. Tempo and parity adjusted TFR (TFRp*) for 2012 is estimated as an average for 2011-2013 using the method by Bongaarts and Feeney (1998) or, when more detailed data are available, using Bongaarts and Sobotka (2012) indicator for 2012. For some countries a simplified computation method of the Bongaarts and Feeney’s indicator was used. The data are mostly based on the Human Fertility Database and the Human Fertility Collection. For country-specific information see data sources.|
European Union always refers to the current territory of 28 member states (excluding French overseas departments). EU-15 refers to the EU member states prior to 2004; EU 13 (new members) covers 13 countries accessing the EU in 2004, 2007 and 2013.
Countries with total population below 100 000, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Turkey are not included in regional overview tables.
Countries with total population below 500 000, and Caucasus countries are not included in the ranking tables.
Data for France exclude overseas departments.
Data for Cyprus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine refer to the government controlled area only.
Definition of regions iin the regional overview take into account geographical, historical and geopolitical divisions, as well as similarity in demographic trends in countries they cover. Countries are grouped into regions as follows:
- Southern Europe (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain);
- Western Europe (Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom);
- German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, Switzerland);
- Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden);
- Central-Eastern Europe (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia);
- South-Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia);
- Eastern Europe (Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine);
- Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia).